-----Original Message-----
From: Dave Ellison <mad-dogs@ntlworld.com>
To: UK LBD <lbduk@topica.com>; ukmm <ukmm@mono.org>
Date: 31 January 2002 17:35
Subject: [MENTION] Psychological Effects of Partner Abuse against Men


>fyi - Dave
>==========
>
>
>-----Original Message-----
>From:    John Potter [SMTP:johnp@johnp.co.nz]
>Sent:    Wednesday, 30 January 2002 12:41
>To:    NZFathers
>Subject:    Psychological Effects of Partner Abuse against Men
>
>Psychological Effects of Partner Abuse against Men: A Neglected Researched
>Area
>Psychology of Men and Masculinity Vol 2 (2)    July 2001    page 75 -- 85
>American Psychological Association Inc.
>by Hines, Denise A. and Malley-Morrison, Kathleen.
>Email lead author: dahines@bu.edu
>Abstract
>This article discusses the research on abuse against men in intimate
>relationships with a primary focus on the effects of this abuse.  We begin
>by discussing the incidence of physical aggression against men, then
>addressed methodological and conceptual issues associated with the
>incidence data.  We next review studies assessing the effects of aggression
>against men and discuss ways in which the research can be furthered and
>improved.  Finally, we discuss why men would choose to stay in these
>relationships and consider the scant research on emotional abuse against
>men.
>Extracts from this Paper
>Although there is a substantial research literature addressing abuse
>against women and its consequences, the flip side of this issue, physical
>abuse against men and its consequences, is a less researched area.......
> There has been almost no research on the consequences of this type of
>abuse. In this article, we will first review data on the prevalence of
>violence directed at husbands by wives.  Although the exact rate of this
>abuse is open to debate, we argue that there are enough male victims of
>violence by their wives to warrant attention to the consequences of that
>violence.  Next, we discuss the scant research that has been done on the
>consequences of this type of abuse and argue that more rigorous research is
>needed.  Finally, we discuss two years that have received even less
>attention: (a) why men stallion abuse of relationships and (b) on emotional
>abuse against men and its effects.
>Incidence of Physical Abuse Toward Men
>On average, women are injured more frequently and more severely at the
>hands of the husbands than men are at the hands of their wives.  However,
>the fact that men can be injured at the hands of this significant others
>and that many times they are injured severely, should not be ignored.
>Although we acknowledge that most battered women use of violence in self
>defence, a bulk of the research on motivations for violence in intimate
>relationships has shown that self defence is not the motivation for women's
>violence in the majority of cases.
>There has been some recognition by researchers who do not use the CTS
>[Conflict Tactics Scale] that husband abuse may indeed be a problem that
>can
>be categorised as a serious social concern.  For instance, while treating
>the clients of a male batterer's program, Stacey, Hazelwood, and Shupe
>(1994)    found that many of their cases were actually cases of mutual
>abuse.
>They found that many couples tended to be mutually abusive and that the
>roles of victim and perpetrator were constantly shifting.  In addition,
>when studying the responses of police officers in their study, Stacey et
>al.  reported that the police would arrest the man as the batterer if the
>women were the abuser because there was no counselling program for women
>available. The police hoped that, by arresting the man, they could get the
>couple into a program.  The assumption was that if they arrested the wife,
>no counselling would be mandated and the husband would generally drop the
>charges.  However because the man was arrested, he had to sign a statement
>that labeled him as the violent perpetrator.  This lack of help for women
>who abuse their husbands is quite common.
>Several studies have indicated that violence by women may be increasing. A
>longitudinal study of 272 newlywed couples, found....... a rate 3 - 4 times
>that found in the 1975 and 1985 [USA] National Family Violence Surveys.....
> In 8% - 13% of the violent marriages, the husband was the sole perpetrator
>of the abuse, whereas in 16% - 26% of the violent marriages, the wife was
>the sole perpetrator.
>In the longitudinal National Youth Survey of 1,725 young adults, Morse
>(1995)    found........  rates for minor physical violence [by females] 2 -
>4
>times greater than the rate found in the National Family Violence Surveys,
>and rates for severe physical violence 3 - 5 times  greater.....  Men were
>the sole perpetrators in 9.9% - 13.9% of the couples and women were the
>sole perpetrators in 29.7% - 37.7% of the couples.
>
>Psychological Effects
>In her longitudinal study, Morse (1995) found that 9.5% of the younger
>males and 13.5% of the older males reported experiencing fear in their
>violent relationships.
>Stets and Straus (1990) found that abused men were significantly more
>likely to experience psychosomatic symptoms, stress, and depression than
>nonabused men.
>None of the studies in the current literature seem to consider that the
>dynamics of a mutually abusive relationship may be very different from the
>dynamics of a relationship in which the man is the sole victim.
>Why Do They Stay?
>In addition to being committed to the marriage, many men refuse to leave an
>abusive situation because of their children.  Because abuse of husbands is
>a relatively unrecognised, it is difficult for abused men to use this
>defence in court to obtain custody of their children (assuming that they
>are willing to admit they are abused). In addition, mothers usually are
>awarded custody.
>Many abused men refuse to leave for fear of leaving their children with
>abusive women.  They believe that if they stay, they can at least protect
>the children if necessary.
>Conclusion
>Research is sorely needed in the area of emotional abuse against men.  The
>research so far has shown that it occurs in a large percentage of
>relationships, and one quantitative and to quantitative studies have
>demonstrated that emotionally abused men can experience depression,
>psychological distress, alcoholism, PTSD, weight loss, fear, and self
>blame.  However, more research in this area is desperately needed.
>
>John Potter
>Johnpwebdesign - websites from $250   http://www.johnp.co.nz
>Masculinist Evolution in New Zealand   http://www.menz.org.nz
>