The electron continued from p6 col. 1 in my 1994 book “Electromagnetism 1”. The A5 version (less diagrams) is at   

Two concentric conducting spheres were charged up. A square section was cut out. This became a charged square capacitor. In the latter, Occam's Razor says that under the contrapuntal model for a charged capacitor, energy current will be reciprocating, not only between west and east edges, but simultaneously between north and south edges, in a manner not fully understood by us.

We then increased the radius of the outer sphere to infinity, and the capacitance did not drop to zero. This became out model for the electron.

Consider instead an array of concentric spheres, charged such that (Theory N) the negative charge on one (outer) face of any one sphere equals the positive charge on its other (inner) face, leading to zero net charge.

As before, each bit of energy current (TEM wave) travels in a great circle between any pair of spheres, with an equal bit of energy current travelling in the opposite direction. However, note that, due to the increasing radius between pairs of spheres, the energy current trapped between two outer spheres, having to travel further, falls behind that trapped between two inner spheres. All the same, the electric current and electric charge on the two faces of a particular sphere cancel, so that the sphere may be removed without changing the situation.

This enhancement of the model for the electron occurred to me some years ago. All energy current travels at 300,000. Ivor Catt  28jan02




What follows is extracted from I Catt, Electromagnetics 1, pub. Westfields 1995/2001, p8. Diagrams removed.


All this material requires knowledge of the Contrapuntal, or Catt, model for the charged capacitor. It is tragic that the concept has been suppressed by the London IEE and the New York IEEE for thirty years. One effect of the model is to undermine the idea that a capacitor has a self-resonant frequency. (The round trip for energy current from front edge to far edge and back across the capacitor is far less time than is needed to give the alleged self-resonant frequency of a capacitor, which is created by inductance of the legs on the capacitor. Cut down the legs, and this phoney frequency gets higher! A long legged capacitor has a low self resonant frequcncy!    )

Energy to charge up a capacitor is delivered, guided between two conductors, at the speed of light. It enters the capacitor at the speed of light, and proceeds to traverse the capacitor from front edge to back edge at the (much slower) speed of light for the capacitor’s dielectric. If the effective dielectric constant is 10,000 the speed falls to one hundredth of 300,000.


The Capacitor.

  .... .... in our capacitor, a TEM wave vacillates from end to end of the capacitor plates, and there is no mechanism for it to slow down.

   Ockham's Razor, "Entities are not to be multiplied beyond necessity" [1], tells us that the scientifically correct theory is the simplest theory which explains the observables. Now we have seen that the new contrapuntal model for the charged capacitor is necessary to explain the situation described above and pictured in Figures 3 thru 8. This new theory also explains all the effects covered by the old model [2]. It follows that either the traditional theory for the charged capacitor  must in future be rejected, or Ockham's Razor must be rejected by the scientific community.

   Let us summarize the argument which erases the traditional model;

a) Energy current can only enter a capacitor at the speed of light.

b) Once inside, there is no mechanism for the energy current to slow down below the speed of light.

c) The steady electrostatically charged capacitor is indistinguishable from the reciprocating, dynamic model.

d) The dynamic model is necessary to explain the new feature to be explained, the charging and discharging of a capacitor, and serves all the purposes previously served by the steady, static model.

e) The static model, since it requires electric charge, collides with the Catt Anomaly (page 60).


The spherical capacitor, the square capacitor.

 We start with a capacitor made up of two concentric spherical conductors close together (Ref.7). Their radii are a and (a+d).

The capacitance is Co=4 (pie) (epsilon) (a+d)/d.



Now let us cut out a small square section. This gives us a charged square capacitor. C¸= (epsilon) A/d.



Previous sections show that the situation in a charged square capacitor must follow a new model, or else we must repudiate Ockham's Razor.

   Again using Ockham's Razor, we have to impose our new model onto the full sphere if it works, which it does. We also have to excise the traditional model with its stationary electric charge on the spheres and electrostatic field in the space (dielectric) between the spheres.

   Now we notice the hidden weakness in our new model for the rectangular charged capacitor. Study of the battery, switches and transmission line (Figs.3thru8) led us to conclude that a so-called steady charged capacitor is not steady at all. Necessarily, a TEM wave containing (hidden) magnetic field as well as electric field is vacillating from end to end.

   Common sense tells us that our new model applies  to the square capacitor as well as the rectangular capacitor.

   If we charged the square capacitor by delivering energy down the west side, we have to decide whether it would behave exactly the same whether the energy is later extracted from the same west side or from the north or south side. Common sense (and Ockham's Razor) tells us that the capacitor's response will be the same. That is, the square capacitor does not remember which was the edge through which energy was delivered into it.

   It follows that, to the assertion that a TEM wave continuously vacillates from west to east, we must add the assertion that a TEM wave vacillates from north to south. Possibly the total velocity of propagation is not © but © (sq.rt 2), and the behaviour of the energy current is something like the Huygens model for light propagation (Ref.8).


The isolated, charged sphere.

   We reverse the picture (Fig.9) so that we start with negative charge on the inner sphere (and positive charge on the outer sphere). If we increase the outer radius (a+d) to infinity, (a+d) dd. We find that the capacitance does not decrease to zero, but to  Co=4 (pie) (epsilon) a. If a=1cm, cd1pF (Ref.7). This leaves us with an isolated negative charge[3].


The electron.

   We have seen that energy current travels around the isolated charged sphere. Each unit of energy current is matched by an equal amount travelling through it in the opposite direction, so that the total electric current and therefore i2R losses in the sphere are zero.

   The next step is to reduce the diameter of the inner sphere. If the total (negative) charge is kept constant, the energy in the surrounding field increases towards infinity. When a=0, the energy is infinite while the charge is finite. Note that the energy (current) is concentrated near the centre, but extends throughout space (because the outer sphere which terminates the lines of electric flux is at infinity). This echoes Faraday's idea that unit charge entends throughout space (and is merely concentrated at a point). Total electric current on the suface of the disappearing inner sphere remains at zero. If this were the true model for the electron (and for other elementary particles), the fact that it contained infinite energy would explain the near-indestructability of fundamental particles, in the same way as it is more difficult to destroy an elephant than a gnat.

Ivor Catt  1994 and 2002







[1] "Entia non sunt multiplicanda praeter necessitatem."


[2] The traditional, old, theory for the charged capacitor is that static electric charge resides on the inside surfaces of the plates, and electrostatic field sits between the plates. There is no magnetic field.

   The old, static theory cannot explain the situation outlined in figures 3 thru 8.

   Further evidence against the old model is that the 'charging' of such a device can only be achieved by energy being fed in via a transmission line at the speed of light, since TEM waves cannot travel in a transmission line slower than the speed of light (p30).


[3]Actually, see Ref. 7, the argument should start with the isolated sphere and end with concentric spheres. However, the reversal illustrates the new model for an electron.