Two turn inductor


12sep02  Ivor Catt   [Related to book at ]



Print out this page


Go to


In the bottom left hand corner, click on tti.exe


File Download. Click on “Open”


A waveform will appear showing what happens when a step is delivered to an inductor. It is a falling exponential.


At the top of the graph, find the list of words “File Settings Voltages …. View”


Click on “View”


Click on “Pulse”


You will now see the waveform when a pulse is delivered to an inductor.


Click on “Settings”


Click on “Parameters”


Under “Simulations settings”, reduce “Number of iterations” to 100.


Click on “OK”


You will see that what appeared to be an exponential was really a series of small steps. The waveform only appears to be an exponential if the width of the inductor is small compared with the rise time of the inputted pulse.


Here you have the smoking gun; the proof that an inductor is a transmission line.


To continue.


Click on “Settings”


Click on “Parameters”


Click on small window “Transformer”


Click on “OK”


We now have a pulse delivered into a transformer.


Click on “View”


Click on “Sine”


We now have a sine wave delivered into a transformer.


Click on “Settings”


Click on “Parameters”


Reduce the number of iterations to 30


Click on “OK”


We begin to see that the inputted sine wave, and the output, can be seen to be a series of steps.


Ivor Catt   12sep02



The London IEE rejected for publication the working out of the detail for the transformer as a transmission line. This was at the same time as the IEEE accepted for publication the working out of the detail for the two turn inductor as a transmission line, see ProcIEEE June 1987, reproduced at  . The two processes are very similar. See .

This analysis of the transformer has never been published, and the idea that, like an inductor, a transformer is a transmission line, is not known.

Acceptance for publication by the IEEE of the two turn inductor is an exception. Generally, all learned institutions [including the IEEE], and all of academia worldwide, and all text book writers, have taken a blocking position over all of this material, which is the gateway to improved transformer design.

Ivor Catt. 12sep02

Next step. Go to



Go to .


Print it out. This gives definitions of the symbols, e.g. Zc . Now the various waveforms can be investigated more thoroughly.


Caveat. You need the theory on crosstalk, see